Archivi categoria: Filosofia della scienza

eBook di filosofia: S. Parigi, Teoria e storia del problema di Molineux

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Silvia Parigi, Teoria e storia del problema di Molineux

“Nel 1693, William Molyneux sottopose al suo amico John Locke un “problema curioso”: se un uomo nato cieco recupera la vista e gli si chiede di riconoscere un cubo e una sfera, che egli già era perfettamente in grado di riconoscere con il tatto, sarà capace di vederli e dire quale sia la sfera e quale il cubo senza toccarli?

Questo enigma,che Locke incluse nella seconda edizione del Saggio sull’intelletto umano (1694), era destinato a divenire uno dei problemi filosofici più importanti del ‘700, specialmente a partire dal 1728, quando il chirurgo William Chesselden riuscì chirurgicamente a restituire la vista a un ragazzo di 14 anni nato cieco, e esaminò il suo comportamento dopo l’operazione.

In questo saggio mostrerò che: a) il problema di Molyneux non costituì una prova decisiva nel confronto tra empirismo e innatismo; b) il caso di Chesselden non funse da experimentum crucis; c) George Berkeley fu l’unico a dare una risposta empiristica coerente al problema di Molyneux.”

 

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Archiviato in eBook di Filosofia, Filosofia della scienza, Filosofia moderna

Ordered Universe Project: il sito sui testi scientifici di Grossatesta

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Ordered Universe Project è il sito dell’interessante progetto degli atenei di Durham e di Oxford con altri partner internazionali, dedicato allo studio dei testi scientifici di Roberto Grossatesta. Il gruppo del progetto ha curato nel 2013 la pubblicazione del De colore mentre sono in fase di lavorazione le edizioni del De iride, De generatione sonorum e del De liberalibus artibus.

Nel sito potete trovare oltre alle segnalazioni di eventi e al blog connesso al progetto queste risorse significative:

 

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Archiviato in Bibliografie, eBook di Filosofia, Filosofia della scienza, Filosofia medievale

eBook di filosofia: G. Simondon, The Essence Of Technicity

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Gilbert Simondon, The Essence Of Technicity

“Gilbert Simondon (1924-1989) was a French philosopher best known for his work on individuation and technology. A student of philosopher of science Georges Canguilhem, Martial Guéroult, phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Jean Hyppolyte, Simondon’s theory of individuation had a major influence on the work of Gilles Deleuze as well as Bernard Stiegler, Brian Massumi, Adrian Mackenzie and many others.

He studied at the École normale supérieure in Ulm and the Sorbonne, defending his doctoral dissertations in 1958. His main thesis, L’individuation à la lumière des notions de Forme et d’Information, was published in two parts–the first in 1964 under the title L’Individu et sa génèse physico-biologique at PUF, while it is only in 1989 that Aubier published the second part, L’Individuation psychique et collective. While his main thesis, which laid the foundations of his thinking, was not widely read until it was reviewed by Gilles Deleuze in 1966, his complementary thesis, Du Mode d’existence des objets techniques was published by Aubier shortly after being completed (1958). In 2005, Jérôme Millon published a complete edition of the main thesis.” (tratto da Monoskop.org)

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Archiviato in eBook di Filosofia, Filosofia della scienza

“Émilie du Châtelet, une femme de sciences et des lettres à Créteil”: il sito della mostra dedicata a Émilie du Châtelet

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Se siete interessati a Émilie du Châtelet, colta pensatrice, traduttrice dei Principes di Newton e compagna di Voltaire, vi segnaliamo il sito dell’esposizione a lei dedicata nel 2006 per il trecentenario della nascita: Émilie du Châtelet, une femme de sciences et des lettres à Créteil.

Il sito è ricco di risorse interessanti:

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Archiviato in Biblioteche digitali, Biografie, Cataloghi, eBook di Filosofia, Filosofia della scienza, Filosofia moderna, Lettere, Mostre on-line, Uncategorized

eBook di filosofia: I. Lakatos, Modern Physics, Modern Society

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Imre Lakatos, Modern Physics, Modern Society

“Imre Lakatos’s philosophy of science is rooted in a number of different fields, and not all of them are purely scientific. During his years of education, he was influenced by mathematics and natural sciences as well as by philosophy, but the role of political ideologies cannot be denied. His basic philosophical ideas – such as the rationality of science, the continual growth of knowledge, the social determinism of scientific activities, and the indispensable role of historical attitude in the philosophy of science – are definitely in accordance with his early devotion to Marxism (and Lukacs’s philosophy) both in theory and in practice.

One can easily find clear evidences that Lakatos saw basic connections between the theoretical sciences he studied and the practical principles he followed in politics. This is clearly demonstrated by the early papers he published in different journals, and it must have played an important role in the doctoral dissertation he wrote in 1947. Unfortunately, no copy of this dissertation can be found now. There are several assumptions as to when and why the paper disappeared, but most probably Lakatos himself might have “stolen” it some time before leaving Hungary in 1956. Later he hinted several times that he was rather unsatisfied with it, regarded it as “immature”, and he also said that he would not have minded if nobody had ever seen it. After some failures to find it, we have good reasons to believe that the dissertation is lost for ever.

Fortunately, we are not left without traces of the contents of this work, because it seems that important parts of it were published while it was being written. Sándor Karácsony, one of the most influential of Lakatos’s teachers in the university, the opponent of the dissertation, evaluated it in July 8, 1947 with the following words:

“I got interested in the foregoing scientific activities of this young man, and not least because I read most of them at the moment they were published. Now I see all of Imre Lakatos’s work in unity, and I deem that it comes up to the standard. His dissertation is not a sudden idea, it was matured by two previous publications, both in very serious journals. The first was published in Athenaeum under the title A fizikai idealizmus bírálatai, and the second came out in a thick volume written to teachers: Továbbképzés és demokráciaii, entitled Modern fizika, modern társadalomiii.”

Here we can skip a list of Lakatos’s early publications cited by Karácsony in the evaluation. We continue the quotation, however, with mentioning another important paper, since its topic – education – was extremely important for Lakatos at this time, and formed the subject of a lot of his investigations. Karácsony writes:

“The journal Embernevelésiv also published a paper by Lakatos, which had the title: Demokratikus nevelés és természettudományos világnézetv. Its most essential statement is: democratic education teaches humbleness towards the facts, it teaches the desire to face reality instead of mere views. The original democracy of natural sciences is to be emphasised: their facts and theories can be controlled by anyone, and this control drives them forward.

The foregoing scientific works of Imre Lakatos are based on dialectic Marxism, but in its modern and not orthodox form. And it is only a base, since he himself has original and particular things to say, and more now than earlier. His originality is increasing. The philosophy behind all of his opinions is consistent and systematic.”

Now, if we compare the two papers mentioned by Sándor Karácsony as the preliminaries of the dissertation, we come to see that the essential body of the earlier one (The Criticism of the Physical Idealism) is almost literally identical to a great part of the longer paper (Modern Physics, Modern Society). The small differences are either stylistic or explanatory, since the journal Further Education and Democracy, an ideological collection of writings for supporting teachers (published by the Ministry of Religion and Education), served more popular purposes than the rather scientific Athenaeum, the journal of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the Hungarian Philosophical Society. Naturally, it is very likely that this text contains most of young Lakatos’s essential thoughts and ideas concerning the position, the development and the function of science, and it is reasonable to suppose that it formed an important part of the lost dissertation entitled A természettudományos fogalomalkotás szociológiájárólvi.

The Criticism of the Physical Idealism is a critical essay discussing Susan Stebbing’s book Philosophy and the Physicists (London, Pelican, 1943). Lakatos, however, criticises not only Stebbing’s analyses of Eddington’s and Jeans’ idealism, but he also adds his own criticism of the two scientists’ world views that he considers as typical examples of the “bourgeois” science. Instead of focusing on the immanent development of science, he decides to look for explanations outside of science. He emphasises the indispensable role of sociological and economic influences on scientific concept building, and he concludes that the world view of a given scientific age or community is nothing more than a historical category. The whole argumentation appears again in Modern Physics, Modern Society, supplemented by some further ideas and more loose associations: the context becomes broader and the investigations more fundamental. Here we are given a deeper (Marxist and Lukacsian contra Hegelian) analysis of the “dialectical structure” of the modern scientific view determined by social relations and motions. And if we imagine that we go further in this direction, then we must be very close to the text of the lost dissertation.”

 

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Archiviato in eBook di Filosofia, Filosofia della scienza

Transversal. International Journal for the Historiography of Science

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Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science è la giovane rivista online semestrale pubblicata dal “Graduate Program” in “Science and Culture in History” dell’Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.

La rivista pubblica saggi e articoli di storiografia della scienza vista da diverse prospettive, compresa quella filosofica.

“Although historiography of science is a sub-discipline of History, we construe this subject broadly to include analysis of the historiography of science produced by history of science, philosophy of science and related disciplines. By focusing its analysis on the different historical, social and epistemological implications of science, historiography of science is a transversal knowledge with respect to the production of science, hence the name of this journal.”

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Archiviato in Filosofia della scienza, Periodici

Ptolemaeus Arabus et Latinus (PAL): il sito web con le versioni in lingua araba e latina delle opere di Tolomeo

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Ptolemaeus Arabus et Latinus (PAL) è il progetto  della Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, al momento in versione beta, che si propone l’edizione e lo studio delle versioni in lingua araba e latina, pubblicate fino al 1700, del Corpus Ptolemaicum .

“Corpus Ptolemaicum includes three categories of texts:

  1. Ptolemy’s authentic works, comprising the Almagest, the Tetrabiblos and the minor works Analemma, Phases of the Fixed Stars, Planetary Hypotheses and Planisphaerium.
  2. Pseudepigrapha (works falsely attributed to Ptolemy), i.e. mainly the Centiloquium, but also other astronomical and astrological works, about 30 of which are known in Arabic and Latin.
  3. Commentaries on the texts under A and B above.”

 Al momento il sito contiente:

  • Works: 120 voci dedicate alle traduzioni latine di Tolomeo
  • Manuscripts: più di 250 voci descrittive sui manoscritti latini che riportano le opere di Tolomeo
  • Glossary: quasi 2000 termini tecnici in lingua greca e araba tratti da testi selezionati (Almagest I-II, Planetary Hypotheses, Planispherium, Tetrabiblos).

Sono presenti due trascrizioni:

  • Almagest, nella versione latina di Gerardi da Cremona
  • Almagestum parvum

Le riproduzioni digitali saranno progressivamente implementate fino alla fine dell’anno.

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Archiviato in Biblioteche digitali, Dizionari, Filosofia della scienza, Manoscritti, Scienza

eBook di filosofia: C. Motta, L’evoluzione delle capacità mentali e del senso morale nell’uomo e negli altri animali

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Costanza Motta, L’evoluzione delle capacità mentali e del senso morale nell’uomo e negli altri animali. Un percorso di continuità tra David Hume e Charles Darwin 

Tesi di laurea triennale. Relatore: prof. Giulio Giorello

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Archiviato in eBook di Filosofia, Etica, Filosofia della scienza, Tesi

De revolutionibus: il sito con le immagini della copia autografa del De revolutionibus di Copernico

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De revolutionibus  è il sito che propone le immagini e il testo della copia autografa del De revolutionibus di Copernico.

It had remained in Copernicus’ hands until his death (24 May 1543). His papers and books passed to his closest friend, Tiedemann Giese (1480-1550), a bishop in Chelmno at that time. He bequeathed his library to Warmia Chapter. However, the autograph went to the collection of George Joachim Rheticus (1514-1574), astronomer, Copernicus’ pupil. Rheticus was occupied with publishing the work of his master, but the basis for printing was not the autograph but its copy. It was also Rheticus who played the main role in spreading the thought and work of Copernicus. The autograph together with its new owner stayed for some time in Leipzig and in Cracow (about 1554 to 1574). Then it went to Kosice (Kaschau). There, after Rheticus’ death, the new owner became his pupil and colleague, Valentine Otho (about 1545 – about 1603), who took it with him to Heidelberg. After Otho’s death the autograph was bought by a professor from Heidelberg, Jakub Christmann (1554-1613). From professor’s widow the manuscript was purchased on 17 January 1614 by the famous scholar and teacher from Moravia, Jan Amos Komensky (1592-1670). May be the autograph together with Komensky came again to Poland.

It is not known what happened to it next. On 5 October 1667 the holdings of Otto von Nostitz (1608-1664) library, located in Jawor Slaski at that time were registered; the Copernicus’ autograph is entered in this inventory. Otto left his signature on the flyleaf. The Nostitz library was then moved to Prague. The autograph had stayed in the afore-said library until the end of the Second World War being used by the scholars for the research studies and publications.

In 1945 the collection of Nostitz library in Prague was nationalized by the government of the contemporary Republic of Czechoslovakia and so the Copernicus’ manuscript became part of the collection of the National Museum Library in Prague.

On 7 July 1956 the government of Czechoslovakia passed the priceless historical monument, on exchange, to the Polish nation and on 25 September 1956 it was given to Jagiellonian University in Cracow. Finally, the autograph was taken care of by the university in which Nicholas Copernicus was educated and from which he received scientific foundation for his memorable work.

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Archiviato in Biblioteche digitali, Filosofia della scienza

Risorse bibligrafiche su David Bohm

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Presso la Birkbeck Library dell’Università di Londra è conservato l’archivio di David Bohm, docente di Fisica teorica presso lo stesso ateneo dal 1961 al 1987.

Nella pagina web a lui dedicata potete trovare:

 

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Archiviato in Archivi, Bibliografie, Filosofia contemporanea, Filosofia della scienza