Archivi categoria: Manoscritti

Ptolemaeus Arabus et Latinus (PAL): il sito web con le versioni in lingua araba e latina delle opere di Tolomeo


Ptolemaeus Arabus et Latinus (PAL) è il progetto  della Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, al momento in versione beta, che si propone l’edizione e lo studio delle versioni in lingua araba e latina, pubblicate fino al 1700, del Corpus Ptolemaicum .

“Corpus Ptolemaicum includes three categories of texts:

  1. Ptolemy’s authentic works, comprising the Almagest, the Tetrabiblos and the minor works Analemma, Phases of the Fixed Stars, Planetary Hypotheses and Planisphaerium.
  2. Pseudepigrapha (works falsely attributed to Ptolemy), i.e. mainly the Centiloquium, but also other astronomical and astrological works, about 30 of which are known in Arabic and Latin.
  3. Commentaries on the texts under A and B above.”

 Al momento il sito contiente:

  • Works: 120 voci dedicate alle traduzioni latine di Tolomeo
  • Manuscripts: più di 250 voci descrittive sui manoscritti latini che riportano le opere di Tolomeo
  • Glossary: quasi 2000 termini tecnici in lingua greca e araba tratti da testi selezionati (Almagest I-II, Planetary Hypotheses, Planispherium, Tetrabiblos).

Sono presenti due trascrizioni:

  • Almagest, nella versione latina di Gerardi da Cremona
  • Almagestum parvum

Le riproduzioni digitali saranno progressivamente implementate fino alla fine dell’anno.

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Archiviato in Biblioteche digitali, Dizionari, Filosofia della scienza, Manoscritti, Scienza

Latin and Greeks Manuscripts. Digital Image: digitalizzazioni a manoscritti medievali

Latin and Greeks Manuscripts. Digital Images di Pieter Beullens dell’Università di Lovanio è il ricchissimo portale che raccoglie i link alle collezioni di manoscritti digitalizzati di epoca medievale.
La linkografia è davvero corposa e indirizza a digitalizzazioni di manoscritti presenti in Europa, negli Stati Uniti e nel Canada.

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Archiviato in Filosofia medievale, Manoscritti, Uncategorized

Greek Manuscripts: il portale dei manoscritti in lingua greca della British Library


Greek Manuscripts è il portale della British Library che offre online le digitalizzazioni dei manoscritti in lingua greca, scritti a partire dal III secolo a. C.  fino ai primi anni del ‘900, patrimonio della biblioteca nazionale inglese.

É possibile fare ricerche libere o navigare entro sezioni tematiche. Sono presenti anche brevi introduzioni  ai materiali e video

” Many of the most famous items in the collections, such as the Golden Canon tables, the Theodore Psalter or the Aristotelian Constitution of the Athenians, are included on the site, but so are many lesser-known volumes that are of major importance in their own way.”

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Archiviato in Biblioteche digitali, Manoscritti

Hebrew Manuscripts: manoscritti di lingua ebraica online

Manoscritto ebraico

Hebrew Manuscripts è il ricco e interessante sito di manoscritti digitalizzati di lingua e cultura ebraica, datati tra il X e il XX secolo, patrimonio della British Library, corredato da introduzioni e approfondimenti.

Si tratta di una rilevante collezione di 1.300 manoscritti per un totale di 435.000 immagini che saranno disponibili nel web. Al momento, trovate online 779 manoscritti ma si prevede il riversamento dell’intera collezione entro la fine di giugno.

The British Library’s collection of Hebrew manuscripts includes items manifesting Jewish cultural, religious and social lives between the 10th century CE and the beginning of the 20th century CE, covering a vast geographical space from North Africa and Europe in the west, through the Middle East to China in the east. In order to make the collection of Hebrew manuscripts available digitally, the Library had received a major grant from The Polonsky Foundation.

The core aim of the three-year Hebrew Manuscripts Digitisation Project (HMDP) is to provide free online access to Hebrew manuscripts from the Library’s collection, through manuscript conservation and imaging, catalogue creation and online presentation. The outputs are detailed and searchable catalogue records and fully digitised manuscripts. This project also includes a digital scholarship component, aiming to encourage and facilitate research using the new digital collection.

The project has digitised 1,300 manuscripts, with the total of approximately 435,000 digitised images. These are mainly manuscripts catalogued by George Margoliouth at the end of the 19th century. At this point, several manuscripts still await more thorough conservation treatments. In addition, several Torah scrolls included textile covers (mantles), made of silk brocade and linen. These have undergone conservation treatment by a textile conservator and were digitised as well.

Potete esplorare il grande patrimonio disponibile online per tematiche:

  • Illuminations and the Art of Writing
  • Jewish Communities
  • New Technologies and Digital Research
  • Science and Medicine
  • The Hebrew Bible

Potete inoltre scorrere e vedere a video le digitalizzazioni raggruppate in sezioni tematiche con interessanti introduzioni.

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Archiviato in Biblioteche digitali, Manoscritti

Archives of American Art: collezioni online di arte americana

arte americana

Archives of American Art è il più ricco repository online di di arte americana (lettere, diari, documenti di archivio, fotografie, film, video…). Dal 2005 sono state scansionate e messe online più di 125 collezioni d’arte nella loro interezza a cui si aggiungono più di 12.000 item catalogati e resi accessibili nell’Image and Media Gallery.

“The Archives today is the world’s pre-eminent and most widely used research center dedicated to collecting, preserving, and providing access to primary sources that document the history of the visual arts in America.

Our vast holdings—more than 20 million letters, diaries and scrapbooks of artists, dealers, and collectors; manuscripts of critics and scholars; business and financial records of museums, galleries, schools, and associations; photographs of art world figures and events; sketches and sketchbooks; rare printed material; film, audio and video recordings; and the largest collection of oral histories anywhere on the subject of art—are a vital resource to anyone interested in American culture over the past 200 years.”

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Archiviato in Archivi, Estetica, Manoscritti

Bibliothèque virtuelle des manuscrits médiévaux (BVMM): manoscritti medievali online


La Bibliothèque virtuelle des manuscrits médiévaux (BVMM), elaborata dall’Institut de recherche et d’histoire des textes (IRHT-CNRS), premette di consultare in rete le versioni digitalizzate di un’ampia selezione di manoscritti (dal Medio Evo al XVI secolo) conservati in Francia.

Le digitalizzazioni possono essere integrali o di una parte significativa del testo. Si può anche richiedere online un accesso temporaneo a fondi particolari.

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Archiviato in Filosofia medievale, Manoscritti

J. G. Herder’s Student Notes from Immanuel Kant’s Metaphysics Lectures: il sito delle trascrizioni degli appunti di Herder delle lezioni di Kant


J. G. Herder’s Student Notes from Immanuel Kant’s Metaphysics Lectures è il sito “in progress” che riporta le trascrizioni, non ancora ultimate, degli appunti di Herder delle lezioni di Kant. Herder frequentò l’ateneo di Königsberg per sei semestri dall’estate del 1762 al novembre del 1764.

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) lectured on philosophy at the university at Königsberg for forty-one years, from the winter semester of 1755/56 until the summer semester of 1796. He eventually assumed the professorship of Logic and Metaphysics (beginning with winter 1770/71), but for his first fifteen years he taught as an unsalaried Privatdozent.

Midway through this time an almost eighteen-year-old Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) arrived from his hometown of Mohrungen and enrolled at the university as a theology student. Kant allowed Herder to attend all of his lectures for free, which Herder did — sometimes more than once — and he took extensive notes. The largest set of notes come from the metaphysics lectures, followed by physical geography and moral philosophy. Much smaller sets come from the lectures on physics, logic, and mathematics.

Herder arrived in Königsberg in the summer of 1762 and he left on November 22, 1764, to assume a teaching post at the cathedral school in Riga. His stay in Königsberg therefore overlapped with six semesters at the university, beginning with the latter half of summer 1762, and Herder’s very first lecture notes are dated from this time: 21 August 1762 (see the image, above, from one of his notebooks).

These are the earliest notes that we have from Kant’s lectures, and the only notes from his years as a Privatdozent. Previous transcriptions had been prepared and published by Menzer (1911; selections), Irmscher (1962), and Lehmann (1968/1970; AA 28). This website provides an improved transcription of Herder’s notes from Kant’s metaphysics lectures. […]

The Herder notes consist of 138 manuscript pages drawn from a collection of loose sheets of papers, sets of folded sheets forming signatures of varying length (some of which had been sewn together at one time), and passages from two bound notebooks (Brown, 4°; Blue, 8°) that also include poems, drafts of essays, and other miscellanea. These notes are grouped into thirteen sets, based on similarity of format and content, and range in length from 1 to 42 pages. “

Per approfondire: Metaphysics Notes

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Archiviato in Filosofia contemporanea, Manoscritti

La versione online dell’Opus postumum di Kant

Unbekannter Künstler, 19. Jahrhundert Immanuel Kant Öl auf Leinwand 62 x 58,5 cm (oval) Provenienz Neuenburg, Schweiz Museum Stadt Königsberg in Duisburg, Inv.-Nr. 1755

É disponibile in rete la versione digitale, per il momento parziale, dell’Opus postumum di Kant: Opus postumum Online – Edition. Nel sito potete vedere affrontate le trascrizioni e i manoscritti originali.

L’Opus postumum raccoglie i manoscritti redatti da Kant negli ultimi anni di vita in vista di una nuova grande opera teorica. Rinvenuti presso gli eredi nel 1858, furono in parte pubblicati solo nel 1882-84 da Rudolf Reicke.

“In dem nachgelassenen Manuskript, das insgesamt 290 lose Bögen und Blätter – zumeist Folio, aber auch kleineren Formats – mit 525 eigenhändig von Kant beschriebenen Seiten enthält, liegt kein fertiges Werk, aber auch kein Fragment vor. Was wir vorfinden, das sind mehrfach synchron und diachron bearbeitete Entwürfe – neben dem sog. Oktaventwurf 13 Entwürfe auf Foliobögen. Das von Kant intendierte Werk ist vielmehr als ein „Arbeitsmanuskript“ mit experimentellem Charakter zu bezeichnen. Es enthält neben reinschriftlichen Texten immer wieder Neuansätze, aber auch Wiederholungen, eine Vielzahl von Streichungen und Änderungen, eingeschobene Überlegungen zu anderen Themen, Ideensplitter bis hin zu Tagesnotizen des alternden Philosophen. In den beiden letzten Entwürfen aus der Zeit April 1800 bis Februar 1803 ist selbst der kleinste Platz ist beschrieben, letzte Zusätze finden sich oftmals zwischen den Zeilen bereits geschriebenen Textes, und die Zuordnung von einzelnen Teilen eines Zusatzes, ja sogar von einzelnen Zeilen oder Worten ist äußerst kompliziert. Das Ganze drückt bis in die sprachliche Haltung hinein die Bewegung des Kantischen Denkens aus. Denn der Philosoph Kant ist ein Autor, der „das Einzelne mit der Feder in der Hand durchdenkt“ (Erich Adickes)”


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Archiviato in Filosofia contemporanea, Manoscritti

Risorse bibliografiche su Pietro d’Alvernia


Petrus de Alvernia è il sito dell’Università di Friburgo dedicato a Pietro d’Alvernia, allievo di Tommaso d’Aquino e commentatore di Aristotele,  la cui importanza nella storia del pensiero è stata riconosciuta recentemente.

“The importance of his thought is witnessed both in the statements of his contemporaries and in the influence he exerted over the following generations. The widespread diffusion of his work is attested by the large number of extant manuscripts (almost 150). Given the fact that Peter was the continuator of some of Thomas Aquinas’s unfinished commentaries on Aristotle, scholarship tended to see Peter simply as the “doctor continuator”. In contrast, in recent decades his importance has been gradually recognized as a master with his own voice and, along with Albert the Great, Thomas Aquinas and John Buridan, one of the most important Aristotelian commentators of the Middle Ages”.

Nel sito trovate queste interessanti risorse bibliografiche:


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Archiviato in Bibliografie, Filosofia medievale, Manoscritti

Charles Darwin’s Evolution Manuscripts


Sono online i manoscritti originali di Darwin: Charles Darwin’s Evolution Manuscripts.

Si tratta di una collezione di 30.000 manoscritti datati tra il 1835 e il 1882 che sono stati digitalizzati per la prima volta a colori con elevati standard di risoluzione. Molti non sono stati mai trascritti e vengono pubblicati per la prima volta in questa edizione. I documenti sono stati ripartiti in due set: Creation of the Origin (pubblicati oggi) e Darwin’s Evidence (online nel giugno 2015).

Creation of the Origin of Species includes the first traces of Darwin’s interest during the Beagle voyage in the species question—broadly defined. It also includes, for contextual purposes, his treatment of those specimens in his own collections and those subjects, such as extinction and biogeography, which he would later revisit in the light of evolution. Beyond these scattered, early theoretical reflections, the bulk of the Creation collection comprises the complete set of theoretical notes and the multiple draft essays that Darwin wrote over a period of two decades (1837-1859). These documents truly constitute the surviving seedbed of the Origin. For in them, Darwin hammered out natural selection and the structure of concepts he used to support natural selection. It was here also that he developed his evolutionary narrative and where he experimented privately with arguments and strategies of presentation that he either rejected or that eventually saw the light of day with the Origin’s publication in 1859.

In the collection, there are several repositories of notes namely: the Transmutation Notebooks and Metaphysical Notebooks of the 1830s. It was in Notebook B, the first Transmutation Notebook, that Darwin first attempted to formulate a full theory of evolution and it was in Notebooks D and E that natural selection began to take form in late 1838 and early 1839. The further maturation of Darwin’s theory is found in the three experiment notebooks he began in the late 1830s and mid 1850s, and above all in the Origin Portfolios. The latter are a large mass of previously unpublished loose notes, primarily from the 1830s-1850s, which Darwin organised into topics that generally parallel the chapters of the Origin. The Origin Portfolios contain several hundred letters and former enclosures in letters, which Darwin commonly annotated and which he treated as an integral part of the material he gathered for what became the Origin.

Lastly, the Creation collection holds the surviving documentary evidence for the drafting of the Origin, which was a process that scholars have long recognised began not in the 1850s, but in 1842 when Darwin wrote the first in a long chain of draft essays and draft chapters. The first of these was the 35-page document known as the 1842 Pencil Sketch or the 1842 Essay. Darwin was right to refer to the 1842 document as a ‘sketch’ for it was very rough. But this often crudely schematic document does represent a very first draft of the Origin. Darwin managed to cover much of the over-arching structure, many of the themes, and even some of the most memorable language of the book that he was to publish much expanded, many drafts and many years later. For example, it was in this sketch that Darwin for the first time coined the term Natural Selection, where it appeared as the section head for the two crucial pages of the 1842 Essay that he devoted to the explanatory essence of his theory (Ms pp. 5 & 6). Darwin began page 5, but quickly crossed-through the short passage he had written. He turned over the page and replaced it with a new page 5.  However, that new start occasioned a historic change and crystallisation of Darwin’s scientific language. For, in the first p. 5 he used the circumlocution ‘Means of selection’, which he then extended to the fairly long phrase ‘<<Natural>> Means of selection’. But on the new page 5, he began a new section with a new heading, and as far as is known, it was at this moment that Darwin coined a new scientific term: ‘Natural Selection’.

The 1844 Essay, a 189-page draft, was to follow next. Possibly before he launched into writing the 1844 Essay, and definitely during 1844 Essay’s writing, he used the backs of many pages of the 1842 Pencil Sketch to write ink chapter summaries and notes, some with page references to the draft of the 1844 Essay. Darwin also rewrote the opening dozen or so pages of the 1844 draft, but retained the rejected version—published here as 1844 Essay, Part I, Draft A. After he completed writing the 1844 Essay, he had it copied by an amanuensis to produce a 230 page fair copy, which he may well have intended to publish. If so, Darwin thought better of the idea, but he did revise and annotate the fair copy, which was also critically annotated—with significant impact—by Emma Darwin and Joseph Dalton Hooker, among others.

One set of Darwin’s annotations on the 1844 Essay, namely dark pencil notes on the verso of blank sheets interleaved among the pages of the fair copy, appear to relate to the next phase of Darwin’s writing up the species theory. That is the nine surviving chapters of the very large manuscript (comprising nine thick volumes of the Charles Darwin Papers, DAR 8-16) published posthumously by R. C. Stauffer in 1975 as Charles Darwin’s Natural Selection, Being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. While it is true—as we learn from Darwin’s pocket diary (DAR 158)—that he first took pen to foolscap to begin writing Natural Selection in May 1856, we also know from the diary that it was earlier, that is in September 1854, that Darwin actually reengaged with the writing project he had dropped in 1844. He did so not by embarking on a new version of the theory, rather he ‘began sorting notes for species Theory’. This correlates well with the establishment of the Origin Portfolios for his old notes and with a sudden influx of new notes, many datable to November 1854.

The Natural Selection manuscript is the immediate, yet partial, precursor of the Origin. Stauffer refers to it as the ‘second part of his big species book’. The first part, dealing with variation and selection under domestication, was apparently cannibalised either when Darwin wrote Chapters 1 and 2 of the Origin and/or when he wrote Variation under domestication (1868). We know from the Diary that there were two lost, presumably reused, Chapters I and II. So the Natural Selection manuscript begins with Chapter III and is complete through Chapter X, while Chapter XI is incomplete. The eight surviving full chapters comprising Natural Selection clearly show that the big book was conceived on a larger scale than the Origin. It is characterized by its richness of detail and the fact that it has footnotes and a presumptive bibliography. Darwin hoped that it would be published in 1860. In fact, when he stopped writing in June 1858, he had not that much further to do to complete the book to the draft stage. Judging by the Origin, he had but four topics left to cover. He had to complete geographic distribution, write de novo chapters on palaeontology and on the related topics he grouped together under classification, morphology, embryology, and rudimentary organs, and he had to write the concluding chapter. In other words, 70% of the topics were already done, and while distribution and palaeontology could well have become double chapters, as they are in the Origin, the remaining topics contained no conceptual difficulties to compare with those, such as divergence and instinct that he had already resolved, at least to his own satisfaction. Given the rate that Darwin was working, publication sometime in 1859-1861 was definitely in sight.

But in June 1858, as he noted in his diary, his writing was ‘interrupted’, as is well known, by the arrival of Alfred Russel Wallace’s paper espousing not only evolution, but evolution by an agency that Darwin in his shock saw—accurately or not—as closely akin to natural selection. By July Darwin had regrouped and began writing what he called an abstract of the big book. This new version of the species book would have no footnotes or bibliography, have far less detail, and would be far more readable than Natural Selection. Some nine months later, in March 1859, the abstract was completed and was published on 24 November 1859 as On the Origin of Species, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. While Darwin carefully preserved many thousands of manuscript pages leading up to the draft of the Origin, and continued to add notes to the Origin portfolios into the 1870s, he seems to have placed little value on preserving the draft itself, and all that survive seem to be mainly those few sheets whose blank sides were used by his children, particularly his son Francis, for drawing paper and those retrieved from the trash basket by others of Darwin’s children, particularly his daughter Henrietta. In total, 45 manuscript pages of the draft, 7 slips with lettered inserts to various pages and 1 fair copy page have been found. Of the 45 full sheets, 26 sheets are part of the Charles Darwin Papers in Cambridge. Most of the latter were distributed as souvenirs by Leonard Darwin acting in consort with his sister Henrietta either to other members of the family or to various scientists and scientific institutions. Leonard in particular gave sheets to fellow supporters of the eugenics movement in Britain and the United States. Ultimately many of the distributed sheets were sold on the open market to collectors and major libraries. Thus the small surviving trove of Origin sheets is the one and only element of the Creation of the Origin collection that isn’t wholly held by Cambridge University Library and Down House.”

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Archiviato in Biblioteche digitali, Manoscritti, Scienza