Archivi categoria: Neuroscienza

Cognition: la rivista online sulla conoscenza

Cognition

Cognition è la rivista online internazionale che pubblica articoli e saggi sui molteplici aspetti della conoscenza.

“It covers a wide variety of subjects concerning all the different aspects of cognition, ranging from biological and experimental studies to formal analysis. Contributions from the fields of psychology, neuroscience, linguistics, computer science, mathematics, ethology and philosophy are welcome in this journal provided that they have some bearing on the functioning of the mind. In addition, the journal serves as a forum for discussion of social and political aspects of cognitive science”.

 

Lascia un commento

Archiviato in Filosofia della mente, Neuroscienza, Periodici, Uncategorized

Comparative Cognition & Behavior Reviews: una rivista online sulla cognizione degli animali

logo Comparative Cogntion

Comparative Cognition & Behavior Reviews è la rivista online,  peer-reviewed che pubblica recensioni, articoli e saggi nel campo della cognizione animale.

“The topics for these reviews and critiques include all aspects of research on cognition, perception, learning, memory and behavior in animals. Published by the Comparative Cognition Society, our web-based format is designed to encourage innovation in presenting information within the field.”

Lascia un commento

Archiviato in Filosofia del linguaggio, Filosofia della mente, Neuroscienza, Periodici

Neuroethics: la rivista online dedicata alla neuroetica

3

Neuroethics è l’interessante rivista open-access dedicata alla neuroetica e in generale alle neuroscienze che ha iniziato le sue pubblicazioni nel 2008.

“The focus is on ethical issues posed by new technologies developed via neuroscience, such as psycho-pharmaceuticals and other ways of intervening in the mind; the practice of neuroscience itself, including problems posed by incidental findings in imaging work on research subjects; regulation of neuroscientific technologies, and ways in which the sciences of the mind illuminate traditional moral and philosophical problems, such as the nature of free will and moral responsibility, self-deception, weakness of the will and the nature of personhood. This important publication covers the dual areas of neuroethics: the ethics of neuroscience and the neuroscience of ethics. It offers comprehensive bibliographies, reviews of significant literature, information on activities including partial proceedings of selected meetings, and an opinions section for reader commentaries”

Find your Volume or Issue

2 commenti

Archiviato in Neuroscienza, Periodici

Portraits of European Neuroscientists: la gallery dedicata ai neuroscienziati

NeuroscienceIntroFig_528

Portraits of European Neuroscientists è l’interessante sito sviluppato da Nicholas Wade, Marco Piccolino e Adrian Simmons che offre una galleria di ritratti di neuroscienziati partendo dai “pionieri”. La finalità è insieme artistica e storica. Ogni ritratto è accompagnato da un testo di presentazione sullo scienziato, sulla sua opera o sul suo pensiero.

” Neuroscience, as a discipline, did not exist until the late 20th century. It emerged as a consequence of the endeavours of many who conspired to illuminate the structure of the nervous system, the manner of communication within it, its links to reflexes and its relation to more complex behaviour, as well as to perceptual experience. Neuroscience is a neologism of recent years: the term was introduced in the 1960s by the American scholar Francis Otto Schmitt as a convenient term to indicate a multidisciplinary research team investigating brain function and the Society for Neuroscience was founded in 1970.

Schmitt’s original team included different researchers ranging from biologists, anatomists, biochemists, physicists, engineers to neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, but now the field of investigation covered by the term (often described in the plural form of Neurosciences) includes neurolinguistics, neurophilosophy and even neuroaesthetics and neuroeconomy. Despite the widespread use of the term ‘neuroscience’ it is seldom accorded a definition of any detail. In general, neuroscience thrives on its vague appeal to advances that are being achieved in studies of the nervous system, and as such the origins of neuroscience stretch back to antiquity. Particularly large strides were made in the nineteenth century. Neuroscience emerged from the biological sciences because conceptual building blocks were isolated, and the ways in which they can be arranged were explored. The foundations on which the structure could be securely based were the cell and neuron doctrines on the biological side, and morphology and electrophysiology on the functional side. The morphological doctrines were dependent on the development of microtomes and achromatic microscopes and of appropriate staining methods so that the sections of anatomical specimens could be examined in greater detail. Electrophysiology provided the conceptual modern framework on which the notion of the nervous function was envisioned as depending on an ongoing flux of electrical signals along the nervous pathways at both central and peripheral level. These aspects of the history of neuroscience will be explored by portraying some of those who have advanced understanding of the nervous system and its functions. With such a rich legacy it is difficult to determine a starting point. The one adopted is around 1500, when Leonardo da Vinci married art and science in his studies of the human body.

It is similarly difficult to define the geographical regions that should be surveyed. Great strides were made in Eastern medicine, especially in the period that is called the Dark Ages in Europe. However, the starting point chosen, around the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries, also determines the places where advances were made, and that is Europe. Within Europe the sweep of neuroscience followed that of science generally and it is clearly reflected in the nationalities of those portrayed. The impetus came from Italy in the 16th and 17th centuries, and then gradually moved west and north. France was in the ascendency in the 18th century, followed by Germany in the 19th century and afterwards England and America. Throughout, individual genius emerged in other countries, but the movements also reflected the institutionalization of science, both in specialised societies and in universities.”

 

Lascia un commento

Archiviato in Biografie, Neuroscienza

eBook di filosofia: T. Ishizuand e Semir Zeki, A neurobiological enquiry into the origins of our experience of the sublime and beautiful

Belvedere_Apollo_Pio-Clementino_Inv1015_n3

T. Ishizuand e Semir Zeki, A neurobiological enquiry into the origins of our experience of the sublime and beautiful in “Frontiers in Human Neuroscience”

“i neuroscienziati Tomohiro Ishizu e Semir Zeki dell’University College of London hanno cercato un riscontro a livello neurobiologico della distinzione tra le due esperienze [del bello e del sublime]. Nella loro ricerca gli autori hanno chiesto ad alcuni volontari (di entrambi i sessi e di diversi gruppi etnici) di osservare e classificare l’esperienza del sublime evocata da 175 immagini tratte dal «National Geographic Magazine». Queste immagini ritraevano ciò che nella letteratura è comunemente associato al senso del sublime, ovvero monti, cascate, foreste, vulcani, tornado, onde oceaniche, ghiacciai, nuvole e deserti. Con la risonanza magnetica funzionale, che ha permesso di localizzare con precisione l’attività del cervello durante la percezione di ogni immagine, i due ricercatori hanno determinato l’attività cerebrale associata all’esperienza soggettiva del sublime. Inoltre, un altro obiettivo dello studio era di confrontare l’attività associata all’esperienza del sublime con quella del bello. Ovvero, capire se il sublime e il bello tracciano nel nostro cervello un’impronta unica, non presente durante altre esperienze.

Certamente, comprendere il sublime da un punto di vista scientifico sembra un’impresa assai difficile: è un complesso di esperienze emozionali e conoscitive di difficile definizione che coinvolge eventi anche opposti, come il piacere e l’orrore. Nel loro lavoro, Ishizu e Zeki (tra i fondatori della neuroestetica, http://www.neuroestetica.org) hanno dimostrato che l’esperienza del sublime attiva aree cerebrali quali i gangli della base, l’ippocampo e il cervelletto, la cui attività è associata a funzioni anche opposte, come il piacere e l’odio, la memoria, l’amore romantico, la percezione di stimoli potenzialmente dannosi e persino l’esperienza della bellezza in matematica. Invece, è interessante notare che il sublime non coinvolge quelle aree tradizionalmente associate alla percezione di stimoli emotivi, come l’amigdala e l’insula. Ciò rivela che il sentimento del sublime è caratterizzato non soltanto da componenti emotive, ma anche da quelle conoscitive, funzionalmente a un livello più alto. Se questo dato è abbastanza sorprendente, l’analisi di Ishizu e Zeki offre invece una conferma delle intuizioni di Burke: le esperienze del bello e del sublime sono costruite su meccanismi neurali radicalmente differenti. Infatti, strutture nervose come la corteccia orbitofrontale, che numerosi studi hanno associato alla bellezza, non sono attivate dal senso del sublime e viceversa.
Quali insegnamenti possiamo trarre da questo studio? Intanto che, grazie alle moderne tecniche di neuroimmagine, oggi possiamo ampliare le conoscenze sul funzionamento del cervello e sulla sua «cartografia» ed estenderle alle esperienze soggettive. Inoltre, la comprensione dei meccanismi neurali alla base del nostro comportamento e delle nostre percezioni può contribuire al dibattito filosofico, supportandone le teorie con dati scientifici.” (P. Panza, L. Ticini, Il sublime svelato dalle scienze)

Lascia un commento

Archiviato in eBook di Filosofia, Estetica, Filosofia contemporanea, Neuroscienza

eBook di filosofia: S. K. Severino, Behold Our Moral Body Psychiatry, Duns Scotus, and Neuroscience

John_Duns_Scotus_729

S. K. Severino, Behold Our Moral Body Psychiatry, Duns Scotus, and Neuroscience

“For centuries, science and religion have been on the opposite sides of the debate about the moral nature of human beings. Now science is confirming what people of faith have long known: human morality is embedded in our biology. Drawing on the latest research in neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and behavioral science, this book affirms the four-fold prophetic vision of morality as expressed hundreds of years ago by the great philosopher and theologian, the Blessed John Duns Scotus. It proclaims the dignity of the individual and celebrates freedom of will for moral living, stemming from the place of innate natural goodness where love prevails.”

Lascia un commento

Archiviato in eBook di Filosofia, Filosofia medievale, Filosofia morale, Neuroscienza